Study on the antioxidant activity and in vitro antifungal activity of Verbascum speciosum methanolic extract

Document Type : Original Articles


Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


The present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant and antifungal effects of
methanol extract from aerial part of Verbascum speciosum. The total phenolic and
flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the plant extract were determined by
using the Folin-Ciocalteau and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical
scavenging assays. The total phenols and flavonoid content of leaves were determined as
82±6.43 mg GAE/g extract and 30.79±0.5 mg RE/g extract, respectively. The extract
exhibited significant radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 32.35μg/ml. The
methanolic extract was investigated for its antifungal activity against some fungal
reference strains which include: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida
parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, A. flavus, A.niger, Penicillium and
Alternaria. For minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determination, a broth
microdilution method according to CLSI M27-A and M38-A for yeasts and filamentous
species was performed. The results showed that the highest in vitro antifungal activities
were against C. parapsilosis and Alternaria. However, there were no significant
differences between different fungal species. These results indicate a high potential of
antifungal properties of this methanolic extract. Therefore, it can be suggested to be an
effective replacement treatment for fungal infections or for the preservation of foods
against pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms.


1. Alan, S., Saltan, F.Z., Gokturk, R.S, Sokmen, M., 2009. Taxonomical properties of three Verbascum L. species
and their antioxidant activities. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 21 (7): 5438-5452.
2. Armatu, A., Bodirlau, R., Nechita, C. B., Niculaua, M., Teaca, C. A., Ichim, M., & Spiridon, I., 2011. Characterization of biological active compounds from Verbascum phlomoides by chromatography techniques. I. Gas chromatography. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 16(4): 6297–6304.
3. Chandler, S.F. & Dodds, J. H., 1983. The effect of phosphate, nitrogen and sucrose on the production of phenolics and solasodine in callus cultures of Solanum laciniatum. Plant Cell Reports, 2(4): 205–8.
4. Dulger, B., & Hacioglu, N., 2009. Activity of Three Endemic Verbascum Species Against Hospital Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, 23 (sup1): 760–762.
5. Kalpoutzakis ,E., Aligiannis, N., Mitakou, S., Skaltsounis, A. L., 1999. Verbaspinoside, a new iridoid glycoside from Verbascum spinosum. Journal of Natural Products,62: 342-344.
6. Karamian, R., & Ghasemlou, F., 2013. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of three Verbascum species from Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants and By-Products, 2(1): 43–51.
7. Katiraee, F., Mahmoudi, R., Tahapour, K., Hamidian, G., Emami, S.J., 2015. Biological properties of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil (phytochemical component, antioxidant and antifungal activity. Biotechnology and Health Sciences 2(2).
8. Mahmoudi, R. & Nosratpour, S., 2013. Teucrium polium L . essential oil: phytochemiacl component and antioxidant properties. International Food Research Journal, 20(4): 1697–701.
9. Nofouzi ,K., 2015. Verbascum speciosum methanolic extract: Phytochemical components and Antibacterial Properties. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants.
10. Ozcan, B., Yilmaz, M., Caliskan, M., 2010. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of various extracts of Verbascum antiochium Boiss. (Scrophulariaceae). Journal of Medicinal Food, 13 (5): 1147-1152.
11. Saltan, F.Z., Sokmen, M., Akin, M.,Saracoglu, H. T., Gokturk, R. S., Ahmad, M., Ali, M. Shah, M. R., 2011. Antinicrobial and antioxidant activities of phenolic compound extracted from new Verbascum species growing in Turkey. Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan, 33 (5): 764-771.
12. Sokmen, A., Jones, B.M. and Erturk, M., 1999. The in vitro antibacterial activity of Turkish medicinal plants. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 67: 79-86.
13. Tambekar, D.H., Dahikar, S.B., 2011. Antibacterial activity of some Indian Ayurvedic preparations against enteric pathogens. Journal of advanced pharmacaceutical technology and research, 2 (1): 24-29.
14. Tatli, İ. İ., Akdemir, Z. Ş., Bedir, E., & Khan, I. A. , 2004.Saponin, Iridoid, Phenylethanoid andMonoterpene Glycosides from Verbascum pterocalycinum var. mutense.Turkish Journal of Chemistry,28(1): 111–122.
15. Wojdylo, A., Oszmianski, J., Czemerys, R., 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chemistry, 105: 940-94.